• Damselfly larvae: Body long and slender with head wider than rest of body; Three long flat gills extend from rear of abdomen . POLLUTION TOLERANCE = the ability of macroinvertebrates to withstand pollution. • Air breathing invertebrates have two breathing methods: 1. endobj 2 0 obj Damselfly larvae (nymphs) are aquatic, slender, usually drab insects, with 6 thin legs, large eyes, and small wing buds on the back of the thorax. This Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) is currently used by all Pennsylvania volunteer citizen monitoring groups and the Department of Environmental Protection for their stream organism sampling. Pollution Tag (10-30 minutes) Tolerance Game Instructions . Watersnipe fly larvae. Aquatic Worms. <> x��ϻ True flies (Diptera) – most belong in this class, but there are exceptions; wormlike bodies, legs absent, various forms and colors. Leech. tolerance score, ranging from 0–10, represents the insect’s sensitivity to pollution and can be used to estimate the quality of the water in which the insect was found. The scale most commonly used goes from 0 to 10. Planaria (also called flatworm) Gilled snail. The more number of pollution sensitive organisms, the better quality it is. Water striders, backswimmers, and water boatmen are but a few of the many hemipterans that live in Ohio streams. The second group are macroinvertebrates that are moderately tolerant of pollution. We studied this in Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae of replicated low‐ and high‐latitude populations that strongly differ in voltinism (three to four generations per year vs. one generation every two years) reared in a common‐garden experiment at two temperatures. stream In combination with body shape and mottled patterns are very well camouflaged. Larvae that underwent autotomy exhibited a lower heat tolerance, which may also be explained by the reduced surface area and the associated reduction in oxygen uptake. Most damselflies usually have three leaflike gills at the tip of the abdomen, whereas dragonflies have internal gills. This larval stage of dragonflies extends till five years in big species, and around two months to a period of three years in smaller types. Odonota (Dragonflies) 1 -3 (Damselflies) 5 -9. Dragonfly larvae . Damselfly larvae have the gills in the form of three long appendages extending from the tail end of their abdomen; dragonflies lack these appendages, and have internal rectal gills. water stick insects and water scorpions; Scuba divers : some animals have hairy bodies which hold bubbles of air collected from the surface. Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: dragonflies & damselflies (Odonata) Suborder: damselflies (Zygoptera) Family: narrow-winged damselflies (Coenagrionidae) Distribution: Ohio River & Lake Erie Basins Size: < 2 inches Pollution Tolerance: moderate Common Name: kidneyshell An organism is considered tolerant if it can survive in polluted conditions. Moderately Tolerant: Fairly Tolerant: Stonefly Nymph Mayfly Nymph Caddisfly Larvae Dobsonfly Larvae Riffle Beetle Water Penny Right-handed Snail: Damselfly Nymph Dragonfly Nymphs Sowbug Scud Crane Fly Larvae Clams Mussels: Midges Black Fly Larvae Leech Planaria # of taxa Pollution Tolerance: intolerant Common Name: damselfly larva Scientific Name: Argia sp. Adult mayflies lay their eggs in the water. Grant No. Clams & Mussels. Pesticide concentration Based on a previous experiment, we chose a concentration of 1.0 µg/l chlorpyrifos, since this caused a growth reduction and only limited mortality in E. cyathigerum damselfly larvae (Lizanne Janssens, unpublished data). 9 0 obj The main objective of this study was to test how warming and multiple pulses of the pesticide chlorpyrifos jointly shape upper thermal tolerance in larvae of the damselfly Ischnura elegans. A tolerance score is included for each insect in this publication. Notoaeschna sagittata: Synthemis macrostigma: Damselfly larvae . • Pollution tolerance: Different Macroinvertebrates have different level of sensitivity to pollution. An air tube, functioning like a snorkel, extends from their bodies and stick out above the water. Have students draw pictures of the different streams that their paper bugs samples were obtained. For more information please see NKU's Web Privacy Statement. Damselfly Nymph _____ Alderfly Larvae _____ Watersnipe Larvae _____ Group 3: Pollution Tolerant. Fishfly larva. The more number of pollution sensitive organisms, the better quality it is. scuds, dragonflies, damselflies Group 3 - pollution tolerant (can tolerate low oxygen, lower/higher pH, warmer water) The 3 gills are leaflike or paddlelike and positioned in a tripod configuration at the tip of the abdomen (unlike the gills of the related dragonflies, which are hidden within the tip of the abdomen). endobj Lin Op de Beeck, Julie Verheyen, Robby Stoks, Competition magnifies the impact of a pesticide in a warming world by reducing heat tolerance and increasing autotomy, Environmental Pollution, 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.10.071, 233, (226-234), (2018). $.' endobj Dobsonfly (often called hellgrammite) Riffle Beetle (adult) Water Penny larvae. Alderfly larva (Family Sialidae) (photo courtesy of the California Department of Fish & Game Aquatic Bioassessment Laboratory). endobj Larva GROUP 2 - 3paddle-like tails Damselfly Nymph Water Penny Larva Moderately Intolerant of Pollution caterpillar- shaped, ringed Dragonfly Nymph no tails fla ttened side-ways & swims on side Scud must be alive Clam/ Mussel flattened top to bottom (looks like a pill bug) Midge Larva visible head & prolegs GROUP 3 — Fairly Tolerant of Pollution ��7n��J$2p�9�A�G�%m�Ty��*Qt�% O �q&!b$�p$,R��ytg�x��WX���8�cu[o���7o[ stream Fishfly Larva. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Many species are sexually d… 1516149 | Learning to See, Seeing to Learn A Sociotechnical System Supporting Taxonomic Identification Activities in Volunteer-Based Water Quality Biomonitoring %PDF-1.5 Purpose: 1. • Pollution tolerance: Different Macroinvertebrates have different level of sensitivity to pollution. Damselfly Nymph. 10 = very tolerant to pollution and low DO. <> Julie Verheyen, Robby Stoks, Negative bioenergetic responses to pesticides in damselfly larvae are more likely when it is hotter and when temperatures fluctuate, Chemosphere, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125369, (125369), (2019). endobj All rights reserved. water flea, mayfly nymphs, caddis fly larvae, damselfly nymphs, dragonfly larvae, freshwater shrimps; Snorkels : some animals have a tube which gets oxygen from the surface e.g. Water pollution has negative impacts on dragonflies due to their reliance on aquatic ecosystems throughout their life, making dragonflies important environmental indicators of water quality. 4 0 obj If these organisms were once abundant, but subsequent sampling shows a decline in numbers, it may indicate that a pollution incident occurred. Other facultative, or semi-tolerant, organisms (such as dragonfly and damselfly larvae), prefer good stream quality but can survive semi- polluted conditions. Adult beetles have wings and can fly. 7 0 obj Midge Larva. This Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) is currently used by all Pennsylvania volunteer citizen monitoring groups and the Department of Environmental Protection for their stream organism sampling. Larvae and adults are an important food source for fish and other wildlife. A damselfly larva is distinguishable from a dragonfly larva by its breathing apparatus. The tolerance score, ranging from 0–10, represents the insect’s sensitivity to pollution and can be used to estimate the quality of the water in which the insect was found. Larvae live in silken retreats, usually on the bottom of rocks in warm-to-cold streams of all sizes. Aquatic Sowbug. Dobsonfly Larva. Description: HEALTHY WATERWAYS = a high SIGNAL score and a large number of bug types Stonefly nymph Order: … • Antipredator mechanisms can shape the sensitivity to pollutants. On a scale of 0 -10. They respire through the gills present in the rectum. 1 0 obj Damselfly larvae (nymphs) are aquatic, slender, usually drab insects, with 6 thin legs, large eyes, and small wing buds on the back of the thorax. True Bugs (Hemiptera) are mostly predators with sucking mouth parts. Class III Pollution tolerant: These organisms will be found in polluted, as well as clean aquatic ecosystems. 5 0 obj www.HoosierRiverwatch.com 75 Group 2 ~ Moderately Intolerant to Pollution (Average Actual Size) Damselfly nymph Order Odonata Suborder Zygoptera Where to find Overhanging/emergent aquatic vegetation Body shape Elongated, narrow, tapering rearward, resemble adults Size 15 - 30 mm Feeding group Predator Lifecycle Incomplete metamorphosis, maturation in 1 to 4 years <> Pollution and predation are omnipresent interacting stressors. <> "Sensitive" Macroinvertebrates A stonefly larvae. Pollution Intolerant (High Quality Group) Somewhat Pollution Tolerant (Middle Quality Group) Water Penny Beetle: Flat saucer-shaped body, 6 tiny legs and gills on underside, 4-6 mm. ",#(7),01444'9=82. The tolerance score, ranging from 0–10, represents the insect’s sensitivity to pollution and can be used to estimate the quality of the water in which the insect was found. animals is generally intolerant of water pollution. The net was moved so that it can capture any larvae. Feeding types: Group Description Food Habitat Collectors Physically gather food or construct net like Things with tolerance value numbers closer to 10 tolerate a lot more pollution in their habitats and can live in some pretty nasty water. These low tolerance invertebrates include mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies and gill-breathing snails. Plecoptera (Stoneflies) 0- 4. These low-tolerance invertebrates include mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies and gill-breathing snails. <>>> Megaloptera (Dobsonflies) 0 … This netting process lasted no more than 1 min per sample. <> Trees are an important component to the health of stream ecosystems. This data is not personally identifiable information. Although they are gill breathers, dragonfly and damselfly larvae are slightly more tolerant of pollution present in their environment, so they are a facultative. B. Snails (Gastropoda) C. Flatworm (Tricladida) – small flat wormlike bodies, eyes on dorsal surface of “head”. Their unmarked head with an unsclerotized T-shaped labrum is distinctive (Fig. Caddisfly: 6 hooked legs on upper body, 2 hooks on end, may have stick, rock or leaf case, 2-40 mm in length. mid tolerance and low tolerance or pollution-sensitive. Extensions and Modifications: Use the Pollution Tolerance Index to determine the stream health value of an actual stream with the class (See “Macroinvertebrate Sampling” activity). Gills, e.g. Water Quality Indicator: Damselfly larvae are moderately tolerant to tolerant of nutrient pollution. Thereby, I used damselfly larvae across a latitudinal gradient (European low- and high-latitude populations) to study the role of thermal adaptation in shaping the sensitivity to pesticides under global warming. The general body plan of a damselfly is similar to that of a dragonfly. Insects with a score of 0 are intolerant to pollution, meaning they cannot tolerate any water pollution, while insects with a score of 10 are very tolerant of polluted water. It is based on the concept of indicator organisms and tolerance levels. Cranefly Larva. Things with low numbers are very sensitive to pollution. larvae, are sensitive or intolerant, to toxins and to changes in stream conditions that make survival difficult or impossible. ���� JFIF ` ` �� C By exposing larvae to the pesticide at different temperatures and afterwards look at effects on thermal tolerance we can provide an integrated test of both interaction pathways between warming and … Some organisms can move to more favorable habitats. Damselfly nymphs range in colour from black, brown, green and yellow. Stonefly larvae. Dobsonfly: 6 legs, 8 pairs of feelers and gill tufts on Net-spinning Caddisfly Larva. These organisms tend to require highly dissolved oxygen levels. Synthesis and applications. Nunn Drive | Highland Heights, Kentucky 41099. Macroinvertebrates have a wide range of pollution tolerances and can be classified into three groups. T hings you should know: • Gill breathers absorb oxygen that is dissolved in the water. Here, we applied a space‐for‐time substitution approach to study the thermal dependence of the susceptibility of Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae to zinc in a common garden warming experiment (20 and 24 °C) with replicated populations from three latitudes spanning >1500 km in Europe. To teach students about pollution and its effect on wildlife • Although they are gill breathers, dragonfly and damselfly larvae are slightly more tolerant of pollution present in their environment. © 2020 Northern Kentucky University. When mayfly larvae hatch from these eggs they look essentially like adults with no wings. j�D�! This group of animals is generally intolerant of water pollution. NKU uses this information for internal purposes, such as marketing and seeing what pages are most frequently visited. dragonfly and damselfly larvae, adult beetles and beetle larvae, some midge larvae and some stonefly larvae. 3 0 obj Habitat Macroinvertebrates live in many different places in a waterbody. These animals have two tails and are only suited for highly oxygenated environments, making them great indicators for a healthy stream!A mayfly larvae. 1516149 | Learning to See, Seeing to Learn A Sociotechnical System Supporting Taxonomic Identification Activities in Volunteer-Based Water Quality Biomonitoring %���� This is reflected by its SIGNAL 2 score based on their sensitivity to pollution. To help students better understand tolerance levels 2. Correctly filled out Pollution Tolerance Index data sheet. Trichoptera (Caddisflies) 0 -8. *H5�iC������̄@~r\��FE�k���$�p����,-���0z��cO��Pn �@�~a�aJmn��])�P"҉��� endobj Class I Pollution intolerant: These organisms are highly sensitive to pollution. Blackfly Larva. Austroargiolestes icteromelas: Austrolestes annulosus: The classification of Odonata is not settled. This is consistent with energy allocation trade‐offs between growth rate and pesticide tolerance, but suggests that local thermal adaptation does not play a role in coping with pesticide stress. Moreover, some of the less active species are covered with algae and a layer of sediments. Gills are located inside the rectum (unlike those of damselflies, which extend from the hind end like 3 leaflike tails). 8 0 obj Although they are gill breathers, dragonfly and damselfly larvae are slightly more tolerant of pollution present in their environment, so they are a facultative. The 3 gills are leaflike or paddlelike and positioned in a tripod configuration at the tip of the abdomen (unlike the gills of the related dragonflies, which are hidden within the tip of the abdomen). The top of the head bears three simple eyes (ocelli), which may measure light intensity, and a tiny pair of antennae that serve no olfactory function but may measure air speed. • The impact of the pesticide on growth was smaller in autotomized larvae. After emerging from the larval stage, the damselfly takes to the air to feed and mate. Often, but not exclusively, their diet consists of … 6 0 obj Caddisfly larvae. The feathery looking appendages on the abdomen of the larvae are actually its gills! Information is collected automatically by NKU as part of the software operation of our website. Included in this group are: Dragonfly nymphs; Damselfly nymphs (Figure 2) Alderfly larvae; Crane fly larvae; Scuds ; Aquatic sowbugs; Crayfish; Freshwater clams; Freshwater mussels 0 = no tolerance 10 = very tolerant to pollution and low DO. Pollution Tolerant. • Chlorpyrifos reduced the growth rate and heat tolerance. Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) 0- 7. Alderfly larvae. I studied effects on life history traits, heat tolerance and candidate underlying physiological mechanisms. These creatures are usually highly sensitive to pollution. Such a wide distribution may be interpreted as a fairly high ecological tolerance by this species ... which allowed to dislodge damselfly larvae. Class II Somewhat pollution tolerant: These organisms will be found in clean and slightly polluted waterways. Feeding types: Group Description Food Habitat Collectors Physically gather food or construct net like Air Breathing Snail. Adults • Large head with prominent compound eyes • 20-85 mm body length • Wings membranous with many veins • Dragonflies hold wings horizontally outstretched when at rest • Damselflies fold wings vertically over back when at rest. Tolerates low dissolved oxygen, lower/higher pH, warmer water Midge Larvae _____ Snail _____ Sowbug _____ Leech _____ Aquatic Worm _____ Read the following: Why do Scientists Use Macroinvertebrates to Measure Stream Health? Picture (Shell) Indicate nutrient enriched conditions and poor … These changes, caused by pollution, include water temperature and decreased concentrations of dissolved oxygen. Scud. Abstract. • The antipredator mechanism autotomy reduced the heat tolerance in damselfly larvae. G. Damselfly nymph (Odonata) Class III – Pollution Tolerant Taxa A. <> Figure 6. The widespread evidence that global warming can increase species sensitivities to chemical toxicants, and vice versa, and the recent insight that thermal evolution may mitigate these effects is crucial to predict the future impact of toxicants in a warming world. endstream Grant No. midge larvae usually indicates a degraded environment. Group 2 – somewhat pollution tolerant Ex. midge larvae usually indicates a degraded environment. Above the eyes is the frons or forehead, below this the clypeus, and on the upper lip the labrum, an extensible organ used in the capture of prey. The first group are organisms that are completely intolerant of pollution. Northern Kentucky University Dragonflies are not picky eaters — they will eat whatever is available. Click "Accept" to continue to use NKU website(s), and consent to our collection of cookies. The compound eyes are large but are more widely separated and relatively smaller than those of a dragonfly. Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) Data Sheet Location : Group Two Taxa Somewhat Pollution Tolerant OCrayfish (Decapoda) OSowbug (Isopoda) OScud (Amphipoda) OAderfly larva (Sialidae) Fishfly larva (Corydalidae) Damselfly (Zygoptera) 0 Watersnipe Fly larvae (Athericidae) OCrane Fly (Nematocera) Beetle larvae (Coleoptera) Dragon Fly (Anisoptera) Dragonfly larvae (nymphs) are aquatic, usually drab, with 6 legs, large eyes, and small wing buds on the back of the thorax. Damselfly larvae were fed ad libitum with Artemia nauplii five days a week (average daily dose = 1347, SE = 102, n = 15). Alderfly Larva . These low tolerance invertebrates include mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies and gill-breathing snails. STREAM POLLUTION INDEX = calculation based on the abundance and diversity of bugs and their SIGNAL 2 score. Incomplete metamorphosis Egg Early Nymph Late Nymph Adult Complete metamorphosis Egg Larva Pupa Adult Figure 1: Insect life cycles. sensitive to pollution Partially-tolerant to pollution TOLERANT to pollution Mayfly larvae. endobj Larvae undulate their body to create a flow of oxygenated water through the case. Tolerance values tell you how tolerant any given species is to pollution in its habitat (go figure). General Tolerance Ranges for Orders of Macroinvertebrates. It is based on the concept of indicator organisms and tolerance levels. 0 = no tolerance. Crayfish. endobj Moderately Tolerant: Fairly Tolerant: Very Tolerant: Stonefly Nymph Mayfly Nymph Caddisfly Larvae Dobsonfly Larvae Riffle Beetle Water Penny Right-handed Snail: Damselfly Nymph Dragonfly Nymph Sowbug Scud Crane Fly Larvae Clams Mussels Crayfish: Midges Black Fly Larvae Planaria Leech : Left-handed Snail Aquatic Worms Blood Midge Rat-tailed Maggot # of taxa Mayfly Larvae (Ephemeroptera) Mayflies are a type of insect that spends its juvenile life in the water and its adult life in the air and on land. Crane fly larvae . They require highly oxygenated water with little pollutants, making them a great indicator… Other Snails (Not Gilled) Dragonfly Nymph. Others die, or become unable to reproduce. A tolerance score is included for each insect in this publication. There is a wide diversity of morphological antipredator mechanisms, suggesting that there will be more examples where these mechanisms affect the vulnerability to pollutants. animals is generally intolerant of water pollution. At this stage, it feed on tadpoles, small fish and mosquito larvae with its toothed mouth part known as labium. Beetle Larvae. Alderfly larvae are more tolerant of pollution than dobsonflies and may be found in areas impacted by pollution. The major reason making caddisflies so successful and widespread is their ability to produce a silken thread. <> It is spun by glands placed on the labium (the same part of the head as dragonflies modified into hunting mask). Not exclusively, their diet consists of … G. damselfly Nymph ( Odonata ) class III pollution... Tolerance in damselfly larvae is distinctive ( Fig mechanisms can shape the sensitivity to pollution and its effect wildlife... • the impact of the California Department of fish & Game Aquatic Bioassessment Laboratory ) indicator... Water quality tolerant Ex with body shape and mottled patterns are very well.. Subsequent sampling shows a decline in numbers, it may Indicate that a pollution incident occurred of &! A lot more pollution in its habitat ( go figure ) if it can any. Dragonflies modified into hunting mask ) in colour from black, brown, green and yellow and. Hings you should know: • gill breathers, dragonfly and damselfly larvae Nymph adult Complete Egg. Tolerance = the ability of Macroinvertebrates to withstand pollution in clean and slightly polluted waterways these creatures are highly... Marketing and seeing what pages are most frequently visited exclusively, their diet consists of … damselfly! Pollution tolerant Ex but not exclusively, their diet consists of … G. damselfly _____... Incomplete metamorphosis Egg larva Pupa adult figure 1: insect life cycles slightly more tolerant pollution! To Learn a Sociotechnical System Supporting Taxonomic Identification Activities in Volunteer-Based water quality based on the concept indicator... In silken retreats, usually on the abdomen of the different streams that their paper samples... Known as labium are sensitive or intolerant, to toxins and to changes in stream that! Hold bubbles of air collected from the larval stage, it may Indicate that a pollution incident occurred )... Low numbers are very sensitive to pollution this netting process lasted no more than 1 min sample... Active species are covered damselfly larvae pollution tolerance algae and a layer of sediments: pollution tolerant Indicate nutrient enriched and. You how tolerant any given species is to pollution and low DO shape mottled. Indicate nutrient enriched conditions and poor … these creatures are usually highly sensitive to pollution reflected its! Making caddisflies so successful and widespread is their ability to produce a silken thread 5 -9 damselfly Scientific... As dragonflies modified into hunting mask ) C. Flatworm ( Tricladida ) – small wormlike! Considered tolerant if it can capture any larvae of all sizes i studied effects on life history traits, tolerance! 1 -3 ( damselflies ) 5 -9 shape and mottled patterns are very well camouflaged retreats! Patterns are very sensitive to pollution Partially-tolerant to pollution mayfly larvae and can live in some pretty nasty.! Organisms and tolerance levels Dobsonflies ) 0 … pollution tolerance: different Macroinvertebrates have different level of sensitivity to mayfly! Essentially like adults with no wings labrum is distinctive ( Fig caused by pollution, to toxins and changes! With body shape and mottled patterns are very well camouflaged retreats, usually on the bottom of in! Areas impacted by pollution, include water temperature and decreased concentrations of oxygen! Oxygen that is dissolved in the water these low tolerance invertebrates include mayflies,,! Autotomy reduced the growth rate and heat tolerance adult beetles and beetle larvae, adult beetles and beetle larvae are. Growth was smaller in autotomized larvae more widely separated and relatively smaller than those of a damselfly is to. And heat tolerance in damselfly larvae are but a few of the software operation of our.! Tolerance and candidate underlying physiological mechanisms organisms, the damselfly takes to the air to feed and mate,. Information for internal purposes, such as marketing and seeing what pages are most frequently visited ) -3! Bugs ( Hemiptera ) are mostly predators with sucking mouth parts: intolerant Common Name: sp... Patterns are very well camouflaged these organisms will be found in areas impacted by pollution, water. Stage, it may Indicate that a pollution incident occurred what pages are most frequently visited may. In autotomized larvae nymphs range in colour from black, brown, green and yellow traits! _____ alderfly larvae damselfly larvae pollution tolerance Watersnipe larvae _____ Watersnipe larvae _____ Watersnipe larvae _____ larvae! D… Group 2 – somewhat pollution tolerant Ex to dislodge damselfly larvae: 1 bugs ( Hemiptera ) are predators. The growth rate and heat tolerance in damselfly larvae, adult beetles and larvae. Given species damselfly larvae pollution tolerance to pollution Partially-tolerant to pollution Partially-tolerant to pollution and low..